Truffles can be associated with a wide variety of tree species, from deciduous to coniferous, as long as they have the capacity to form ectomycorrhizae. It is therefore possible to create a planting scenario that includes tree species adapted to a number of site realities.


“To help you choose the right tree species, here are the main agronomic and aesthetic aspects of tree species to consider for truffle plantations. The information shared is taken from the Répertoire des arbres et arbustes ornementaux published by Hydro-Québec in 1998, with a personal touch based on our own experience to show you the unique and special character of each of these species.


At Truffes Québec, we offer the following truffle trees:


Other tree species are available on request: Carolina Hornbeam, Hickory, Basswood, American Beech, etc.

American Hazelnut

Corylus americana

The American Hazel has a shrubby habit, with beautiful dark-green, pubescent, heart-shaped leaves. An essential species for planting edible nuts that everyone loves!

Hardiness zone: 4a
Height: 3 m
Width: 1.5 m
Growth: Rapid, spread by stolons (aerial roots).
Exposure: Sun or part shade.
Appearance: bushy, dense growth habit, strongly upright branches spreading with age.
Soil: Well-drained, sandy loam with neutral pH and medium humidity. Avoid heavy clay soils.
Rooting: Superficial, often slow and difficult to establish after planting.
Diseases and insects: Few pathological problems, resistant to hazelnut blight, but prone to damage caused by certain weevils (balanins).

Bur Oak

Quercus macrocarpa

Large native tree producing delicious sweet nuts. It is the hardiest edible oak in Quebec. With a lifespan of over 200 years, this highly valuable tree is a good choice for reforesting a sustainable forest.

Hardiness zone: 2b
Height: 20 m
Width: 20 m
Growth: Slow.
Exposure: Sun.
Appearance: Globular habit, its branches are often twisted, giving it a very impressive appearance.
Rooting: Deep, powerful roots, difficult to plant in clumps.
Diseases and insects: Few pathological and entomological problems.

•	Chêne à gros fruits | Quercus macrocarpa

Red oak

Quercus rubra

Native to Quebec and not very sensitive to frost, it is one of our most valuable hardwood species for the quality of its wood. It was once used to build ships for the Royal Navy. Today, it is used for parquet flooring, dry casks and furniture.

Hardiness zone: 3a
Height: 24 m Width: 24 m
Growth: Medium to fast.
Exposure: Sun.
Appearance: pyramidal habit becoming rounded, irregular spreading crown; horizontal to semi-erect branches; crown flattens with age.
Soil: Medium humidity, neutral to slightly acidic ph.
Rooting: Deep, powerful roots, difficult to plant in clumps.
Diseases and insects: Few pathological and entomological problems.

Chêne rouge | Quercus rubra

White pine

Pinus strobus

Ranging in height from 30 to 90 m, the white pine is the tallest conifer in Eastern Canada. Majestic and enigmatic, this tree with its elegant silhouette popularized by Group of Seven artists became Ontario’s official tree in 1984. One of the fastest-growing conifers, it is an excellent choice for reforestation and wildlife preservation activities, which feed on its bark, needles and fruit.

Hardiness zone: 2b
Height: up to 50 m
Width: 10 m
Growth: Rapid.
Exposure: Sun or part shade.
Appearance: Pyramidal, symmetrical habit when young; rounded, irregular habit, very attractive in older individuals; broad crown and impressive horizontal branches.
Soil: Sandy, rich, cool, drained with acid pH and medium humidity.
Rooting: Shallow rooting, rootball planting in spring.
Disease and insects: High susceptibility to white pine blister rust and slight susceptibility to pine weevil.

Pin blanc | Pinus strobus

Norway spruce

Picea abies

The drooping needles of the Norway spruce form long sleeves that give it a sumptuous look, especially in winter when it’s covered in snow. This tree is the fastest-growing of all spruces, and forms magnificent stretches of mysterious forest.

Hardiness zone: 2b
Height: 50 m
Width: 12 m
Growth: Rapid.
Exposure: Sun or part shade.
Appearance: pyramidal, regular, graceful growth habit; broad crown; hanging branches.
Soil: Sandy-loam and even limestone with acid, neutral or alkaline pH.
Rooting: Shallow rooting, plants over 60 cm tall should be planted with a root ball.
Diseases and insects: Few pathological and entomological problems.

Épinette de Norvège | Picea abies

Oval hickory

Carya ovata

A large nut tree native to Quebec that can live for over 300 years, it has become very rare in the province, yet deserves a place of honour. It’s a wonderful gift for future generations.

Hardiness zone: 4b
Height: 23 m
Width: 17 m, but in tight plantings 5 m may be sufficient.
Growth: Slow for the first 5 years, then more than 30 cm per season.
Exposure: Shade or part shade.
Appearance: ovoid habit, short, fan-shaped branches.
Soil: Rich, fresh, well-drained loam, medium soil moisture, medium tolerance to compaction. Rooting: Deep; taproots, difficult to plant.
Diseases and insects: Few pathological and entomological problems.

Caryer ovale | Carya ovata